Computer Simulation of Gas Turbines: Performance Monitoring, Maintenance and Profit Optimization, Power Augmentation, Profits, Revenue and Life Cycle Cost Analysis (1.2 CEU'S)

Daily Schedule:
8:00am - Registration and coffee
8:30am - Session begins
4:30pm - Adjournment
Breakfast, two refreshment breaks and lunch are provided daily 

This seminar provides indepth understanding of computer simulation of gas turbines under steady-state and transient conditions. The selection considerations and applications of co-generation and combined cycles are also covered in this seminar. The analysis performed by gas turbine simulators provides the following benefits:

1- Allow the operator to extend the gas turbine operating period by avoiding unnecessary outages and maintenance activities.

2- Determination of essential gas turbine maintenance activities to reduce the

duration of the outage.

The simulation program is capable of simulating the following parameters to determine their effects on gas turbine performance, turbine creep life, environmental emissions, gas turbine life cycle cost, revenue, and profitability: variations in ambient temperature and pressure, inlet and exhaust losses, engine deterioration, different faults, power augmentation methods including peak mode, and water injection, control system performance (including proportional offset, integral windup, and trips), variations in the fuel type (natural gas, diesel, etc), variations in maintenance techniques and frequency, variations in many key parameters.

The simulation program is also capable of trending the following:

1- Many gas turbine key parameters such as exhaust gas temperature, speed, etc.

2- Compressor characteristics, and its operating point during engine transients.

These trends can also be provided as bar charts. The simulated data can be exported to other Window packages such as Excel spreadsheets, etc. Many simulation exercises are included to describe how the simulation program should be used for different scenarios

including co-generation and combined cycle plants.

Delegates are also encouraged to bring the operational data of their gas turbines. The instructor will be able to perform simulation of their plants to reduce unnecessary maintenance activities, optimize the profits, and minimize environmental emissions.

De-regulation of the electricity markets is sweeping across the world. There will be increasing opportunities for highly efficient power generating plants, such as combined cycle and co-generation, to compete against the older plants of established utilities. These new plants are environmentally friendly and more than twice as efficient as the older fossil and nuclear generating plants. Independent Power Producers and utilities are planning to construct additional combined cycle and co-generation plants due to their short construction lead-time and low capital investment.


To provide a comprehensive understanding of computer simulation of gas turbines, as well as their selection criteria, operation and maintenance requirements, and economics. Participants will develop a good understanding of gas turbines and their numerous advantages.


Engineers of all disciplines, managers, technicians, maintenance personnel, and other technical individuals.


The following is included, in digital form, with your registration:

1- A book (800 pages) titled “POWER PLANT EQUIPMENT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE GUIDE” published by McGraw-Hill in 2012 and authored by the instructor.

2- A manual (200 pages) authored by the instructor covering additional information

about gas turbines and computer simulation.

Faculty: Philip Kiameh, University of Toronto/Ontario Power Generation

Philip Kiameh

Philip Kiameh, M.A.Sc., B.Eng., D.Eng., P.Eng. (Canada) has been a teacher at University of Toronto and Dalhousie University, Canada for more than 24 years. In addition, Prof Kiameh has taught courses and seminars to more than four thousand working engineers and professionals around the world, specifically Europe and North America. Prof Kiameh has been consistently ranked as "Excellent" or "Very Good" by the delegates who attended his seminars and lectures.
Prof Kiameh wrote 5 books for working engineers from which three have been published by McGraw-Hill, New York. Below is a list of the books authored by Prof Kiameh:
  1. Power Generation Handbook: Gas Turbines, Steam Power Plants, Co-generation, and Combined Cycles, second edition, (800 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, October 2011.
  2. Electrical Equipment Handbook (600 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, March 2003.
  3. Power Plant Equipment Operation and Maintenance Guide (800 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, January 2012.
  4. Industrial Instrumentation and Modern Control Systems (400 pages), Custom Publishing, University of Toronto, University of Toronto Custom Publishing (1999).
  5. Industrial Equipment (600 pages), Custom Publishing, University of Toronto, University of Toronto, University of Toronto Custom Publishing (1999).
Prof. Kiameh has received the following awards:
  1. The first "Excellence in Teaching" award offered by the Professional Development Center at University of Toronto (May, 1996).
  2. The "Excellence in Teaching Award" in April 2007 offered by TUV Akademie (TUV Akademie is one of the largest Professional Development centre in world, it is based in Germany and the United Arab Emirates, and provides engineering training to engineers and managers across Europe and the Middle East).
  3. Awarded graduation “With Distinction” from Dalhousie University when completed Bachelor of Engineering degree (1983).
  4. Entrance Scholarship to University of Ottawa (1984).
  5. Natural Science and Engineering Research Counsel (NSERC) scholarship towards graduate studies – Master of Applied Science in Engineering (1984 – 1985).
Prof. Kiameh performed research on power generation equipment with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at their Chalk River and Whiteshell Nuclear Research Laboratories. He also has more than 30 years of practical engineering experience with Ontario Power Generation (formerly, Ontario Hydro - the largest electric utility in North America).
While working at Ontario Hydro, Prof. Kiameh acted as a Training Manager, Engineering Supervisor, System Responsible Engineer and Design Engineer. During the period of time that Prof Kiameh worked as a Field Engineer and Design Engineer, he was responsible for the operation, maintenance, diagnostics, and testing of gas turbines, steam turbines, generators, motors, transformers, inverters, valves, pumps, compressors, instrumentation and control systems. Further, his responsibilities included designing, engineering, diagnosing equipment problems and recommending solutions to repair deficiencies and improve system performance, supervising engineers, setting up preventive maintenance programs, writing Operating and Design Manuals, and commissioning new equipment.
Later, Prof Kiameh worked as the manager of a section dedicated to providing training for the staff at the power stations. The training provided by Prof Kiameh covered in detail the various equipment and systems used in power stations.
Professor Philip Kiameh was awarded his Bachelor of Engineering Degree "with distinction" from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He also received a Master of Applied Science in Engineering (M.A.Sc.) from the University of Ottawa, Canada. He is also a member of the Association of Professional Engineers in the province of Ontario, Canada.


Review of Thermodynamics Principles

The First Law

The Enthalpy

The Closed System

The Cycle

Property Relationships

Perfect Gases

Imperfect Gases

Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibrium in A Pure Substance

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Concept of Reversibility

External and Internal Irreversabilities

The Concept of Entropy

The Carnot Cycle

The Turbine Governing Systems


Governor Characteristics

Subsidiary Functions

Acceleration Feedback

Unloading Gear

Governor Speed Reference

Closed-Loop Control of Turbine Electrical Load

Overspeed Testing

Automatic Run-up and Loading Systems

Electronic Governing

Reheater Relief Valves

Hydraulic Fluid System



Gas Turbine cycles

Ideal cycles

Waste Heat Recuperators

Reheat Cycle

Combined Cycle Plants

An overview of Gas Turbines


The Brayton Cycle

Industrial Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines

Aircraft-Derivative Gas Turbines

Medium-Range Gas Turbines

Small Gas Turbines

Major Gas Turbine Components


Axial-Flow Compressors

Centrifugal Compressors

Compressor Materials

Two-Stage Compression



Tubular (side combustors)

Can-annular and Annular

Combustor Operation


Axial-Flow Turbines

Radial-Inflow Turbines

Heat Recovery Steam Generators

Total Energy Arrangement

Gas Turbine Applications

Comparison of Gas Turbines with Other Prime Movers




Compressor Off-Design Performance

Low rotational speeds

High rotational speeds


Principles of Operation

Combustor Design Details

Cooling Provisions

Transition Housing and Ignition


Turbine operation

Blade cooling

Types of cooling

Effectiveness of The Various Cooling Methods


Performance Degradation


Regenerative-Cycle Gas-Turbine Analysis

Calculation Procedure



Centrifugal compressors technology

Axial compressors overview

Gas Turbine Compressors

Centrifugal Compressors

Principle of Operation

Compressor Characteristics

Axial Flow Compressors




Compressor auxiliaries

Compressor off-design performance, low rotational speeds, high rotational


Performance degradation.



Casing Configuration

Construction features


Interstage seals

Balance piston seals

Impeller Thrust

Performance Characteristics

Slope of the centrifugal compressor head curve



Off-design Operation

Rotor Dynamics

Rotor Balancing

Surge Prevention Systems

Surge Identification

Liquid Entrainment


Cleaning Centrifugal Compressors

Appendix A (Boundary Layer)


Description of the Boundary Layer

Separation; Wake


Description of a centrifugal compressor

Centrifugal compressor types

Compressors with horizontally-split casings

Centrifugal compressors with vertically-split casings

Compressors with bell casings

Pipeline compressors

Performance limitations

Surge limit


Prevention of surge

Anti-surge control systems

Gas Turbine Combustors


Combustion Terms


Combustion Chamber Design

Flame Stabilization

Combustion and Dilution

Film Cooling of the Liner

Fuel Atomization and Ignition

Gas Injection

Wall Cooling

Wall-Cooling Techniques

Combustor Design Considerations

Air Pollution Problems


Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide

Oxides of Nitrogen

Typical Combustor Arrangements

Combustors for Low Emissions

Combustors for Small Engines (less than 3 MW)

Industrial Chambers

Aeroderivative Engines

Axial-Flow Turbines


Turbine Geometry

Degree of Reaction

Utilization Factor

Work Factor

Impulse Turbine

The Reaction Turbine

Turbine Blade Cooling Methods

Convection Cooling

Impingement Cooling

Film Cooling

Transpiration Cooling

Water Cooling

Turbine Blade Cooling Designs

Convection and Impingement Cooling/Strut Insert Design

Film and Convection Cooling Design

Transpiration Cooling Design

Multiple Small-Hole Design

Water-Cooled Turbine Blades

Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics

Gas Turbine Materials


General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines

Creep and Rapture

Ductility and Fracture

Thermal Fatigue


Gas Turbine Blade Materials

Turbine Wheel Alloys

Coating for Gas Turbine Materials

Gas Turbine Lubrication and Fuel Systems

Gas Turbine Lubricating Systems

Cold Start Preparation

Fuel Systems

Liquid Fuels

Water and Sediment

Carbon Residue

Trace Metallic Constituents and Sulphur



Sodium and Potassium



Gaseous Fuels

Gas Fuel Systems

Liquid Fuel Systems


Intake System

Compressor Cleaning

Gas Turbine Bearing and Seals


Bearing Design Principles

Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings

Bearing Materials

Bearing and Shaft Instabilities

Thrust Bearings

Factors Affecting Thrust Bearing Design

Thrust Bearing Power Loss


Noncontacting Seals

Labyrinth Seals

Ring (Bushing) Seals

Mechanical (Face) Seals

Seal Systems

Gas Turbine Instrumentation and Control Systems

Vibration Measurement

Pressure Measurement

Temperature Measurement


Resistive Thermal Detectors

Control Systems

Speed Control

Temperature Control

Protective Systems

Startup Sequence

Starting Preparations

Startup Description


Fuel System

Baseline for Machinery

Mechanical Baseline

Aerothermal Baseline

Data Trending

Compressor Aerothermal Characteristics and Compressor Surge

Failure Diagnostics

Compressor Analysis

Combustor Analysis

Turbine Analysis

Turbine Efficiency

Mechanical Problem Diagnostics

Instrumentation and Control Systems of a Typical Modern Gas Turbine

Modern Gas Turbine Control Systems

Closed-Looped Controllers

Protective Systems

Permissives (Interlocks)

Liquid Fuel Supply

Start-up Sequence of the Gas Turbine

Cranking Phase

Acceleration Phase

Synchronization Phase

Loading Phase

Operation Phase

Inlet Guide Vanes

Compressor Bleed Valves


Gas Turbine Performance Characteristics

Thermodynamic Principles

Thermodynamic Analysis

Factors Affecting Gas Turbine Performance

Air Extraction

Performance Enhancements

Inlet Cooling

Steam and Water Injection for Power Augmentation

Peak Rating

Performance Degradation

Verifying Gas Turbine Performance

Gas Turbine Operating and Maintenance Considerations


Gas Turbine Design Maintenance Features

Borescope Inspection

Major Factors Influencing Maintenance and Equipment Life

Starts and Hours Criteria

Service Factors


Firing Temperature

Steam/Water Injection

Cyclic Effects

Air Quality

Combustion Inspection

Hot-Gas-Path Inspection

Major Inspection

Gas Turbine Emission Guidelines and Control Methods


Emissions From Gas Turbines

General Approach For a National Emission Guideline

NOx Emission Target Levels

Power Output Allowance

Heat Recovery Allowance

Emission Levels For Other Contaminants

Carbon Monoxide

Sulphur Dioxide

Other Contaminants

Size Ranges For Emission Targets

Peaking Units

Emission Monitoring

NOX Emission Control Methods

Water and Steam Injection

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

Dry Low-NOX Combustors



Effects of ambient temperature on gas turbine performance

Effects of ambient pressure on gas turbine performance

Simulation of effects of component deterioration on engine performance

Compressor fouling

Turbine damage

Power Augmentation

Peak rating

Power augmentation by water injection

Simulation of engine control system performance

Proportional-integral-derivative control loop

Proportional action

Proportional and integral action

Proportional, integral and derivative action

Signal selection

Optimizing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)


Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGV’s) control

Profits, Revenue and Life Cycle Cost Analysis

Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on life cycle cost

Power augmentation

Performance deterioration

Maintenance cost

Non-Dimensional Analysis

Application of Flow Compatibility Equation During Hot End Damage

Application of Flow Compatibility Equation When the Ambient Temperature Drops

Computer Simulation Applications

Computer simulation applications for several gas turbine installations

Computer simulation applications for several co-generation and combined cycle



1- Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on engine performance

Determine the maximum generator power, gas turbine shaft power and thermal

efficiency for the engine when operating at ISO conditions. What is the creep life

usage of the turbine? ISO conditions refer to an ambient temperature and pressure

of 15 degrees Celsius and 1.013Bar respectively and zero inlet and exhaust losses.

What limits the power output from the gas turbine?

Determine the emissions from the gas turbine and hence calculate the amount of

NOx, CO and CO2 in Tonnes/year.

1- The engine operating at site has the following conditions.

• Ambient temperature 15 degrees Celsius

• Ambient pressure 1.013 Bar

• Inlet and exhaust loss of 100 mm water gauge

Determine the parameters in exercise 1 above and calculate the percent changes in

the parameters when operating at site rated conditions. Explain the changes in the

turbine life usage.

3- Determine the percent changes in the parameters in exercise 1 when

1) The ambient temperature is 30 degrees Celsius

2) The ambient temperature is zero degrees Celsius

3) The ambient temperature is –15 degrees Celsius

What limits the power output from the gas turbine when operating at these

ambient temperatures?

Repeat this simulation exercise using the control system option 2. Comment on

the operation of the variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) at these ambient conditions.

4- When operating at site rated conditions as stipulated in exercise 2, determine the

parameters in exercise 1 when the ambient pressure is 0.975 Bar and calculate the

percent change from the values determined in exercise 1 above.

5- When the required power output from the generator is 37MW and the ambient

pressure and temperature are 0.975 Bar and 15 degrees Celsius respectively.

Determine the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. If the ambient pressure

increases to 1.03 Bar explain the why the thermal efficiency decreases and explain

the changes in the turbine creep life usage and emissions.

6- Produce a graph describing the maximum gas turbine power output with ambient

temperature indicating what engine parameter restricts the capacity of the gas

turbine at different ambient temperatures. Also, determine the ambient

temperature when the engine power output is limited by exhaust gas temperature

and maximum power limit. The variation in ambient temperature should be from

30 to –17 degrees Celsius in steps of 10 degrees.

7- Increased filter loss and low ambient pressure reduces the compressor inlet

pressure. When the engine developing 37MW of electrical power explain

difference in thermal efficiency when the compressor inlet pressure decreases due

to a high filter loss and low ambient pressure.

8- Use the gas turbine to demonstrate the benefits of a closed cycle gas turbine.

9- If this engine operates as a closed cycle gas turbine using air as the working fluid

with a system pressure is 5 Bars, estimate the maximum power output from the

gas turbine. What is the thermal efficiency of the closed cycle gas turbine?

Assume a compressor inlet temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.

10- A factory is being planed and it has been decided that the plant shall generate its

own electrical power of 32 MW with the prospect of selling any surplus power to

the grid. Two possible sites are suitable. The average ambient temperature and

pressure of the first site is 30 Celsius and 1.013 Bar respectively. The second site

is at a higher elevation and the average ambient temperature and pressure is 15

degrees Celsius and 0.975 Bar respectively. Use the simulator to determine the

most suitable site based on engine performance. Assume an inlet and exhaust loss

of 100 mm water gauge respectively.

Economic and Technical Considerations for Combined Cycle Performance

Enhancement Options

Economic Evaluation Technique

Output Enchancement

Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling

Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative Cooling Methods

Evaporative Cooling Theory.

Wetted-Honeycomb Evaporative Coolers

Water Requirements for Evaporative Coolers


Evaporative Intercooling

Inlet Chilling

Inlet Chilling Methods

Off-Peak Thermal Energy Storage

Gas Vaporizers of Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Power Augmentation

Gas Turbine Steam/Water Injection

Supplementary Fired HRSG

Peak Firing

Output Enhancement Summary

Efficiency Enhancement

Fuel Heating



Plant description

Evaluation of inlet-air pre-cooling option

Evaluation of inlet-air chilling option

Evaluation of absorption chilling system

Evaluation of the steam and water injection options

Evaluation of supplementary firing in HRSG option

Comparison of all power enhancement options

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